## Test Bank For Principles And Applications of Assessment in Counseling 5th Edition by Susan C. Whiston

**Multiple Choice****1.Â With a reliability coefficient of .81, using classical test theory we would interpret that the:â€‹**a. â€‹amount of error variance to observed variance is 81 percent.b. â€‹amount of true variance to observed variance is 81 percent.c. â€‹instrument has good enough reliability.d. â€‹instrument’s validity coefficient would be 0.81^{2}.*ANSWER: *b**2.Â If we interpreted a reliability coefficient to indicate that 80% of the variance was true variance to observed variance, what would be the ratio of error variance to observed variance?â€‹**a. â€‹0.20b. 0.40â€‹c. 0.60â€‹d. â€‹0.80*ANSWER: *a**3.Â According to classical test theory, if the observed variance of a test is 50 and the true variance is 40, what is the estimated reliability of the test?â€‹**a. â€‹0.40b. 0.50â€‹c. 0.80â€‹d. â€‹0.90*ANSWER: *c**4.Â Systematic error (as compared to unsystematic error):â€‹**a. â€‹significantly lowers the reliability of an instrument.b. insignificantly lowers the reliability of an instrument.â€‹c. increases the reliability of an instrument.â€‹d. has no effect on the reliability of an instrument.â€‹*ANSWER: *d**5.Â What statistical technique is often used to calculate an estimate of reliability?â€‹**a. â€‹Regressionb. Analysis of varianceâ€‹c. â€‹Factor analysisd. â€‹Correlation*ANSWER: *d**6.Â A correlation coefficient is an indicator of:â€‹**a. â€‹the validity of an assessment.b. â€‹the variability of the obtained scores.c. â€‹the relationship between two sets of data.d. â€‹the fluctuation of an individualâ€™s score over time.*ANSWER: *c**7.Â Correlation coefficients range from:â€‹**a. â€‹-1.0 to 1.0.b. 0 to 1.0.â€‹c. 0 to -1.0.â€‹d. -5.0 to 5.0.â€‹*ANSWER: *a**8.Â When calculating correlations, the most common method used is the:â€‹**a. â€‹Pearson-Product Moment Correlation Coefficient.b. Correlation Coefficient of Most Common Factors.â€‹c. Reliability Coefficient of Correlation.â€‹d. Reliability Correlation Coefficient.â€‹*ANSWER: *d**9.Â The statistic that represents the percentage of shared variance between two variables is the:â€‹**a. â€‹correlation coefficient.b. reliability correlation.â€‹c. â€‹coefficient of determination.d. â€‹coefficient of shared variance.*ANSWER: *d**10.Â For which of the following tests would a test-retest reliability estimate be least appropriate?â€‹**a. â€‹Intelligence testsb. Tests of moment-to-moment mood changesâ€‹c. â€‹Academic achievement testsd. â€‹Instruments to measure art aptitude*ANSWER: *b**11.Â Which of the following is NOT one of the assumptions that should be met when establishing the reliability of an instrument using the test-retest method?â€‹**a. â€‹Test-retest reliability is only valid when measuring situational traitsb. The characteristic or trait measured should be stable over timeâ€‹c. â€‹There should be no differential in practice effectd. â€‹There should be no differential in learning between the test and retest*ANSWER: *a**12.Â The most significant difficulty with estimating reliability with the alternate or parallel forms procedure isâ€‹**a. â€‹calculating the correlation coefficient using two different forms.b. â€‹the effects of remembering specific items in the second testing.c. developing two sound instruments that are equivalent or parallel.â€‹d. â€‹finding two similar sets of test takers.*ANSWER: *c**13.Â The Spearman-Brown formula is used:â€‹**a. â€‹to correct a test-retest reliability coefficient.b. to correct a split-half reliability coefficient.â€‹c. when the items are all of the same difficulty level.â€‹d. â€‹when the items are of differing levels of difficulty.*ANSWER: *b**14.Â The decision to use either the Kuder-Richardson 20 (KR 20) or the Kuder-Richardson 21 (KR 21) is based on whether:â€‹**a. â€‹the method used to determine reliability is the test-retest or the alternate form method.b. correlation or regression is going to be used.â€‹c. the items measure a homogeneous or heterogeneous behavior domain.â€‹d. the item format is multiple-choice or true-false.â€‹*ANSWER: *c**15.Â What is the most appropriate way to determine reliability with Likert scales, where different answers receive different weightings?â€‹**a. â€‹Test-retestb. Spearman-Brownâ€‹c. Kuder-Richardson 20â€‹d. Coefficient alpha (or Cronbachâ€™s Alpha)â€‹*ANSWER: *d

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